About 90% of the population is Muslim, with most of them practicing Sunni Islam.
The Soviet era saw the implementation of policies designed to transform the status of women in Tajik society.
During the 1930s, the Soviet authorities launched a campaign for women's equality in Tajikistan, as they did elsewhere in Central Asia.
Eventually major changes resulted from such programs, but initially they provoked intense public opposition.
In some rural parts of the republic, about half the women were not employed outside the home in the mid-1980s.